Approximately 10,000 species of sponges are known at present, and the phylum is divided into three classes, viz., Calcarea or Calcispongiae, Hexactinellida or Hyalospongiae, and Demospongiae and about twelve orders chiefly on the type of skeleton. All of the following sponges are found within the coral cap region of the sanctuary (0-130 ft, 0-40m deep). TheSkeletonandClassificationofCalcareousSponges.61 Theincompletenessoftheobservationsisrecognised,butonthe wholeitwouldappearitwouldappear It is attached to the substrate by a thin stalk. Calcareous sponges vary from radially symmetrical vase-shaped body types to colonies made up of a meshwork of thin tubes, or irregular massive forms. Recent molecular analysis suggests the class Calcarea should be designated as a phylum, in particular the first to have diverged in the Animalia. Distribution: The … Communicated by ADAM SEDGWICK, F.R.S. British Museum (Natural History), London. All of the following sponges are found within the coral cap region of the sanctuary (0-130 ft, 0-40m deep). Leucosolenia: It is a simplest colonial sponge consisting of number of horizontal and vertical tubes. Type. Ecological and distributional characters are important in distinguishing species, particularly in groups (e.g., haliclonids) in which skeletal and embryological characters are so * The contours of the surfaces, particularly where they rise over Burton, Maurice, 1898-1992 British Museum (Natural History). Systema Porifera: a guide to the classification of Sponges. Burton, Maurice, 1898-1992 British Museum (Natural History). Rapp et al. Rapp et al. Voigt, O., Wülfing, E. and Wörheide, G. (2012) Molecular phylogenetic evaluation of classification and scenarios of character evolution in calcareous sponges (Porifera, Class Calcarea). 693 pp. 94–96. Calcareous sponge, any of a class (Calcarea) of sponges characterized by skeletons composed entirely of calcium carbonate spicules (needlelike structures). The skeleton has either a mesh or honeycomb structure. Collection Highlights | Updated 7 years ago. They are characterized by spicules made out of calcium carbonate in the form of calcite or aragonite. W. Clowes and Sons Ltd., London, 693 pp. The Calcarea first appears at the base of the Lower Cambrian and has persisted until the present. Burton, M., 1963. Calcarea (L. Calcis- lime): The skeleton is of calcareous spicules. Molecular Phylogenetic Evaluation of Classification and Scenarios of Character Evolution in Calcareous Sponges (Porifera, Class Calcarea) By Oliver Voigt (90080), Eilika … Calcareous sponges vary from radially symmetrical vase-shaped body types to colonies made up of a meshwork of thin tubes, or irregular massive forms. Manuel M(1), Borchiellini C, Alivon E, Le Parco Y, Vacelet J, Boury-Esnault N. Phylogeny and evolution of calcareous sponges: monophyly of calcinea and calcaronea, high level of morphological homoplasy, and the primitive nature of axial symmetry. It is now established that many of these forms actually belong to several groups of demosponges because of the possession of primary siliceous spicules, and only fe… Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers: New York, NY (USA). gelatinosum Photo by Clay Bryce, image copyright WA Museum Typically pale in colour and with a tendency to be quite small in size (less than 30cm), this class of sponges lacks spongin and their skeletons are composed entirely of calcium carbonate. Calcareous sponge A possible calcareous sponge encrusted by a siliceous hexactinellid. Calcareous sponges have spicules made of magnesium calcite (MgCO3), or may lack spicules altogether. * The contours of the surfaces, particularly where they rise over A common feature is the supporting skeleton, made of calcareous, star shaped structures - or spicules. Taxonomyof Calcareous Sponges This iconoclastic work, A Revision of the Classification of the Calcareous Sponges [British Museum (Natural History), London, 1963. A look in a microscope reveals that the tube walls are smooth. About Sanctuary Home History Regulations FAQs Sanctuary Staff Natural Setting NW Gulf Banks Species List Mesophotic Coral Ecosystems Research Vessel Sanctuary Encyclopedia 20 Things to Love NOAA Corps Staff: SPONGE SPECIES. Updates? p. 104. Published material. Like nearly all other sponges, they are sedentary filter feeders. These spicules do not have hollow axial canals. Burton, M. (1963) A revision of the classification of the calcareous sponges. Previous molecular studies have revealed many discrepancies between classically recognized taxa and the observed relationships at the order, family and genus levels; these inconsistencies question underlying hypotheses regarding the evolution of certain morphological characters. Sponges of the New Caledonian Lagoon: Class Demospongiae, Order Agelasida. Calcareous sponges (Phylum Porifera, Class Calcarea) are known to be taxonomically difficult. Corrections? The spicules are composed of magnesian calcite. Memebers of the group Calcarea are the only sponges that possess spicules composed of calcium carbonate. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Publication Details. Proc. The diameter of the entire sponge is less than 3 cm. Calcareous sponges vary from radially symmetrical vase-shaped body types to colonies made up of a meshwork of thin tubes, or irregular massive forms. An element which seems to have been too little regarded in the physiology of sponges is the permanent tension of their walls. The classification and phylogeny of the calcareous sponges, with a reference list of all the described species, systematically arranged. Communicated by ADAM SEDGWICK, F.R.S. Classification of Sponge: Chiefly on the basis of skeleton, phylum Porifera (Sponge) is divided into three classes. Pp. Calcareous sponges occur mainly on the rocky bottoms of the continental shelves in temperate, shallow waters; they are usually dull in colour. A revision of the classification of the calcareous sponges : with a catalogue of the specimens in the British Museum (Natural History) By. Burton, Maurice, 1898-1992 British Museum (Natural History). Classification. Proc. These organisms are sessile creatures that can reproduce by both asexual and sexual methods. with a catalogue of the specimens in the british museum, natural history. Together, the classes Calcarea and Hexactinellida make up about 10 to 20 percent of the known species of sponges; the remaining 80 to 90 percent are placed in the class Demospongiae.…, …archaeocyathids most closely resemble the calcareous sponges. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. 693 pp. Class 1. Calcareous sponges vary from radially symmetrical vase-shaped body types to colonies made up of a meshwork of thin tubes, or irregular massive forms. Habitat: G. lacunosa prefers hard substrate and is often seen on steep, rocky slopes. These usually have three points, but some species have two or four pointed spicules. ISBN 0-306-47260-0. xix, 1-1101, 1103-1706 (2 volumes) pp. An element which seems to have been too little regarded in the physiology of sponges is the permanent tension of their walls. Publication info Class Calcarea includes sponges that are small in size and less colorful than other sponge classes. Classification. Sycon cf. , 2011 ). The results of chemical, X-ray diffraction and infra-red analyses, together with specific gravity determinations, are presented for the spicules of seven species of Calcarea. A revision of the classification of the calcareous sponges. Calcareous sponges take a wide range of shapes, including irregular massive forms, vase-shaped bodies on a stalk or meshworks of thin tubes.
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